It’s interesting to see that the amount of companies using data is increasing. It’s also pretty cool to see some of the new and innovative ways that companies are doing so, especially with data analytics playing a big role in achieving new levels of success.The automotive industry has been trying their hands at using data and they’re doing it well. The amount of data that can be gathered from cars is quite ridiculous, especially when you take into account that a lot of data is simply stored in the key which is then plugged in at the garage to view it.Cars have been kitted inside and out with data. Yes, I bet that’s not one you’ve heard about as it’s not quite cream leather interiors or mud resistant trims. Data is so much better. It’s behind vehicle safety and quality and contributes to the driving experience.Did you know, the average hybrid vehicle generates up to 25 gigabytes of data in just one hour? Car manufacturers and garages have been capturing telematics for many years however it’s becoming much more sophisticated. Using analytics and data has enabled technology to alert drivers of any hazards on the road, or if the conditions are particularly dangerous. Anti-locking systems, traction control and so much more have been created with the help of data.IBM reported that Volvo, through using predictive analytics, repair instructions and identifying replacement parts before a vehicle arrives for a service has benefit from a reduction in diagnostic times by up to 70% and repair times of over 20%.Furthermore, with recent years having cars being recalled, some companies like BMW are using data analytics to record errors reported by customers to identify any potential weakness in new models that could cause problems and then eliminating them before they even go into production. Now if this isn’t major cost savings, increased efficiency and keeping a good reputation then I don’t know what is.Connected vehicles are becoming more popular. Services and experience can be constantly updated once the car has left the factory. They can have important updates and interactions without having to return and this has proven extremely useful through the connecting capability. Ford, for example have focused on more “consumer-based, more real-time interaction, real-time services, real-time experiences, contextualized experiences” rather than the storage capabilities of the cloud.It’s not just information about faults that manufacturers use data for. Financial predictions means cars are priced according to the market and behind the prices are more realistic pricing plans and financial support. It goes without saying that car companies will use their contact data for marketing purposes and targeting their communications to ensure their messages stay relevant. They’ve proved that data can go far beyond the use of marketing and with the likes of BMW and Volvo showing that data is having a rather positive impact on business, it will be interesting to see where and how the market takes its usage of data.
The KWP2000 protocol has become a de facto standard in automotive diagnostic applications. It is standardized as ISO 14230-3. KWP2000 describes the implementation of various diagnostic services you can accethrough the protocol. You can run KWP2000 on several transport layers such as K-line (serial) or CAN.Transport Protocol
As KWP2000 uses messages of variable byte lengths, a transport protocol is necessary on layers with only a well defined (short) message length, such as CAN. The transport protocol splits a long KWP2000 message into pieces that can be transferred over the network and reassembles those pieces to recover the original message.KWP2000 runs on CAN on various transport protocols such as ISO TP (ISO 15765-2), TP 1.6, TP 2. 0 (Volkswagen), and SAE J1939-21. For KWP2000, the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports only the ISO TP (standardized in ISO 15765-2) and manufacturer-specific VW TP 2.0 transport protocols.Diagnostic Services
The diagnostic services available in KWP2000 are grouped in functional units and identified by a one-byte code (ServiceId). The standard does not define all codes; for some codes, the standard refers to other SAE or ISO standards, and some are reserved for manufacturer-specific extensions. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports the following services:• Diagnostic Management
• Data Transmission
• Stored Data Transmission (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)
• Input/Output Control
• Remote Activation of RoutineUpload/Download and Extended services are not part of the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set.Diagnostic Service Format
Diagnostic services have a common message format. Each service defines a Request Message, Positive Response Message, and Negative Response Message. The Request Message has the ServiceId as first byte, plus additional service-defined parameters. The Positive Response Message has an echo of the ServiceId with bit 6 set as first byte, plus the service-defined response parameters.The Negative Response Message is usually a three-byte message: it has the Negative Response ServiceId as first byte, an echo of the original ServiceId as second byte, and a ResponseCode as third byte. The only exception to this format is the negative response to an EscapeCode service; here, the third byte is an echo of the user-defined service code, and the fourth byte is the ResponseCode. The KWP2000 standard partly defines the ResponseCodes, but there is room left for manufacturer-specific extensions. For some of the ResponseCodes, KWP2000 defines an error handling procedure. Because both positive and negative responses have an echo of the requested service, you can always assign the responses to their corresponding request.Connect/Disconnect
KWP2000 expects a diagnostic session to be started with StartDiagnosticSession and terminated with StopDiagnosticSession. However, StartDiagnosticSession has a DiagnosticMode parameter that determines the diagnostic session type. Depending on this type, the ECU may or may not support other diagnostic services, or operate in a restricted mode where not all ECU functions are available. The DiagnosticMode parameter values are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard. For a diagnostic session to remain active, it must execute the TesterPresent service periodically if no other service is executed. If the TesterPresent service is missing for a certain period of time, the diagnostic session is terminated, and the ECU returns to normal operation mode.GetSeed/Unlock
A GetSeed/Unlock mechanism may protect some diagnostic services. However, the applicable services are left to the manufacturer and not defined by the standard.You can execute the GetSeed/Unlock mechanism through the SecurityAccess service. This defines several levels of security, but the manufacturer assigns these levels to certain services.Read/Write Memory
Use the Read/WriteMemoryByAddress services to upload/download data to certain memory addresses on an ECU. The address is a three-byte quantity in KWP2000 and a five-byte quantity (four-byte address and one-byte extension) in the calibration protocols. The Upload/Download functional unit services are highly manufacturer specific and not well defined in the standard, so they are not a good way to provide a general upload/download mechanism.Measurements
Use the ReadDataByLocal/CommonIdentifier services to access ECU data in a way similar to a DAQ list. A Local/CommonIdentifier describes a list of ECU quantities that are then transferred from the ECU to the tester. The transfer can be either single value or periodic, with a slow, medium, or fast transfer rate. The transfer rates are manufacturer specific; you can use the SetDataRates service to set them, but this setting is manufacturer specific. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports single-point measurements.Diagnostic Trouble Codes
A major diagnostic feature is the readout of Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). KWP2000 defines several services that access DTCs based on their group or status.Input/Output Control
KWP2000 defines services to modify internal or external ECU signals. One example is redirecting ECU sensor inputs to stimulated signals. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.
Remote Activation of a RoutineThese services are similar to the ActionService and DiagService functions of CCP. You can invoke an ECU internal routine identified by a Local/CommonIdentifier or a memory address. Contrary to the CCP case, execution of this routine can be asynchronous; that is, there are separate Start, Stop, and RequestResult services. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.External References
For more information about the KWP2000 Standard, refer to the ISO 14230-3 standard.
Nowadays, the way people search for new cars and shop for automobile products and services has changed significantly due to Internet. Customers are increasingly preferring to search online for cars rather than using traditional ways of classified ads, newspapers, making phone calls, or directly visiting showrooms. Automotive dealers need to have a strong online presence in order to tap these potential customers in this competitive market. Hiring a professional Internet marketing firm that knows the nuances of online marketing can help automotive dealers to effectively market them online and reach out to target market.Convenient For Customers to Find Dealers
As majority of customers are turning towards Internet for searching cars, they expect automotive dealers to have an online presence. There are more chances that a customer will first look for dealers located in their area or local region. Thus, the customers will find it easy to find such dealers if they have a website. An online presence is necessary to target such customers. Also, it is easy for customers to find dealers if they loose the business card or brochure given by dealer. They can find the dealers online by typing the name of dealer, geographic area, or other dealer related information.Get Quality Leads
Getting quality leads is key aspect for maintaining online web presence. An effective online presence gained after implementing various Internet marketing techniques like Search Engine Optimization, e-mail marketing, and social media management etc helps generate more traffic to the website. More web traffic towards dealer website results in getting more quality leads that can turn into potential clients.Improves Sales
An effective website is a crucial element in the online presence of automotive dealers. It is the comprehensive and well designed custom website that helps to convert the leads and increase sales. A well designed website with good information, inventory list, landing page etc that addresses the needs of customers increases the chances of lead conversion and improve sales. Thus, an effective web presence is required to improve the sales.Cost Effective and Generate More ROI
Maintaining an effective online presence through a search engine optimized website ensures that more traffic is generated towards website thereby increasing the chances of lead conversion. Instead of purchasing leads from third party sites, dealers can effectively drive traffic to their website and generate leads organically. Search Engine Marketing including SEO and paid search generates quality leads and more ROI compared to purchasing any third party leads. Thus, maintaining an effective online presence by incorporating various internet marketing techniques proves to be more effective, efficient, and affordable. Dealers can also use other internet marketing techniques with higher ROI that can generate quality traffic.Improves Customer Relationship
An effective online presence for automotive dealers helps to reach out to targeted customers. Dealers can provide continuous updated information, new trends about industry to its existing and new customers that help to strengthen customer relationship. Continuously informing the customers about latest deals, special offers, and sending greetings on festivals, holidays, and birthdays helps in developing customer relationships. The customer is likely to find the dealer who maintains a website to be more reliable.Improves Customer Relationship
An effective online presence for automotive dealers helps to reach out to targeted customers. Dealers can provide continuous updated information, new trends about industry to its existing and new customers that help to strengthen customer relationship. Continuously informing the customers about latest deals, special offers, and sending greetings on festivals, holidays, and birthdays helps in developing customer relationships. The customer is likely to find the dealer who maintains a website to be more reliable.Maintaining an effective online presence is proving to be essential for automotive dealers as majority of customers are beginning their search for cars online. Online web presence also helps to develop reputation among customers by showing expertise in particular field, customer testimonials, and commitment for better customer service etc.